Vibe Glossary




2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology.The main differentiator to previous mobile telephones, retroactively dubbed 1G, is that 1G networks process analog data but 2G networks are digital. This allowed a considerable improvement in voice quality, as digital information is not subject to distortions in the same way as analog information, and also increased capacity as calls can be multiplexed more efficiently. 2G networks cannot normally transfer data, such as email or software, other than the digital voice call itself, and other basic ancillary data such as time and date. Nevertheless, SMS messaging is also available as a form of data transmission for some standards.
3G (or 3-G) is short for third-generation technology. It is usually used in the context of cell phones. The services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging email, and instant messaging).
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project is a collaboration agreement that was established in December 1998. It's a co-operation between ETSI (Europe), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea). The scope of 3GPP is to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU’s IMT-2000 project. 3GPP specifications are based on evolved GSM specifications, now generally known as the UMTS system.


An Automatic Call Distributor is a device that distributes incoming calls to a specific group of terminals that agents use. It is often part of a computer telephony integration system.
ACD systems are quite often found in companies who handle a lot of incoming phone calls and where the caller has no specific need to talk to a certain person, but wants to talk to a person who is able to talk to him at the earliest opportunity.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide.
The distinguishing characteristic of ADSL over xDSL is that the volume of data flow is greater in one direction than the other, i.e. it is asymmetric. Providers usually market ADSL as a service for people to connect to the internet in a relatively passive mode: able to use the higher speed direction for the download from the Internet but not needing to run servers that would require bandwidth in the other direction.
An analog or analogue signal is any variable signal continuous in both time and amplitude. It differs from a digital signal in that small fluctuations in the signal are meaningful. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context, however mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also use analog signals.
The American National Standards Institute is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a cell relay network protocol which encodes data traffic into small fixed-sized (53 byte; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) cells instead of variable sized packets as in packet-switched networks (such as the Internet Protocal or Ethernet). It is a connection-oriented technology, in which a connection is established between the two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins.


Bandwidth is a measure of frequency range, measured in hertz, of a function of a frequency variable. Bandwidth refers to data rates when communicating over certain media or devices. The word bandwidth can refer to either the data rate or the frequency range of the communication system (or both).
Bluetooth is a technology that allows wireless communication within a range of about 30 feet. Instead of connecting your computer and printer or your PDA and cell phone by wires you bring them into proximity to share, synchronize, or print information.
Broadband Internet access , often shortened to "broadband Internet" or just "broadband", is a high data-transmission rate internet connection used to transmit voice, data, or video signals simultaneously. Use of broadband allows more information to be transmitted at the same time.
Business Process Outsourcing
The use of a third party provider to take responsibility for non-core business functions to improve their cost effectiveness and turn them into Value Adding features in the business.


A technological environment in which any combination of voice, video and data using any combination of fixed and mobile services, can be accessed from any location via any device.
Communications Service Provider . An organisation that acts as the provider of telecommunications services to end customers.
Computer Telephony Integration is technology that allows interactions on a telephone and a computer to be integrated or co-ordinated. As contact channels have expanded from voice to include email, web, and fax, the definition of CTI has expanded to include the integration of all customer contact channels (voice, email, web, fax, etc.) with computer systems.


A digital system is one that uses discrete numbers, especially binary numbers, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a ccontinuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons.
Digital Subscriber Line , is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires used in the "last mile" of a local telephone network. Typically, the download speed of DSL ranges from 128 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000 kbit/s depending on DSL technology and service level implemented. Upload speed is lower than download speed for ADSL and symmetrical for SDSL.


Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). It defines wiring and signaling for the physical layer, and frame formats and protocols for the media access control (MAC)/data link layer of the OSI model. Ethernet is mostly standardized as IEEEs 802.3. It has become the most widespread LAN technology in use during the 1990s to the present, and has largely replaced all other LAN standards such as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET.
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute is an independent, non-profit, standardisation organization of the telecommunications industry industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ETSI has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system and the TETRA professional mobile radio system. Significant ETSI standardisation bodies are 3GPP (for UMTS networks) or TISPAN (for fixed networks and Internet convergence).


File Transfer Protocol is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol (such as the Internet or an intranet). There are two computers involved in an FTP transfer: a server and a client. The FTP server, running FTP server software, listens on the network for connection requests from other computers. The client computer, running FTP client software, initiates a connection to the server. Once connected, the client can do a number of file manipulation operations such as uploading files to the server, download files from the server, rename or delete files on the server and so on.


The Global System for Mobile Communications is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, which means that it is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This fact has also meant that data communication was built into the system from very early on. GSM is an open standard which is currently developed by the 3GPP.



Internet Protocol . the computer networking protocol used on the Internet.
IP address
Internet Protocol address, a computer network address.
Integrated Services Digital Network is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds than available with analog systems. More broadly, ISDN is a set of protocols for establishing and breaking circuit switched connections, and for advanced call features for the user. In a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems.
Internet Service Provider . Internet service can be provided through the phone line, cable and power line.
Internet Telephony Services Providers’ Association . ITSPA was formed in March 2004 to represent network operators, service providers and other businesses involved with the supply of VoIP services to business and residential customers within the United Kingdom .
Interactive voice response , is a computerised system that allows a person, typically a telephone caller, to select an option from a voice menu and otherwise interface with a computer system. Generally the system plays pre-recorded voice prompts to which the person presses a number on a telephone keypad to select the option chosen, or speaks simple answers such as "yes", "no", or numbers in answer to the voice prompts.



The speed of data transmission measured as the number of thousands of data bits per second.


Local Area Network . LANs connect computers in a home, office or building. Each computer in a LAN can run its own programs, as well as access data on other computers on the LAN. The computers can also share printer and allow users on the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions.
A landline or main line is a telephone line which travels through a solid medium, either metal wire or optical fibre. This is distinguished from a mobile cellular line, where the medium used is the airwaves.
Long Haul
Long-haul communications , in public switched networks, refers to circuits that span large distances, such as the circuits which are interstate and international.
Local Loop
The local loop (also referred to as a subscriber line ) is the physical link or circuit, that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the carrier, or telecommunications service provider, network.


Management Information Systems . A system which captures and turns data into something which is meaningful to help manage activity or a decision.
The speed of data transmission measured as the number of millions of data bits per second.
In computer networking and telecommunications, Multiprotocol Label Switching is a data-carrying mechanism which emulates some properties of a circuit-switched network over a packet-switched network. MPLS operates at an OSI Model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of Layer 2 (data link layer) and Layer 3 (network layer), and thus is often referred to as a "Layer 2.5" protocol. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients which provide a datagram service model. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic, including IP packets, as well as native ATM, SONET, and Ethernet frames.


A system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data between computers. The network includes the network operating system in the client and server machines, the cables connecting them and all supporting hardware in between such as bridges, routers and switches. In wireless systems, antennas and towers are also part of the network


OSI model
The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Model or OSI Reference Model for short) is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection initiative. It is also called the OSI seven layer model. The seven layers are Physical, Data link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation and Application.


A Private Branch eXchange (also called PBX or Private Business eXchange) is a telephone exchange that is owned by a private business, as opposed to one owned by a common carrier or by a telephone company. Originally an organization's manual switchboard (operated by a person plugging cables into sockets) was known as a PMBX (Private Manual Branch eXchange). These were gradually replaced by automated electromechanical and then electronic switching systems, called PABXs (Private Automatic Branch eXchange). As PMBXes are almost unheard of, the terms PABX and PBX have become synonymous.
A packet is the fundamental unit of information carriage in all modern computer networks that use packet switching.
Post Office Telephone Service or Post Office Telephone System
A communications protocol is the set of standard rules for data representation, signalling, authentication, and error detection required to send information over a communications channel. The communication protocols for digital computer network communication have many features intended to ensure reliable interchange of data over an imperfect communication channel.
The Public Switched Telephone Network is the concentration of the world's public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concentration of the world's public IP-based packet-switched networks. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital, and now includes mobile as well as fixed telephones.



A device which allows you to share one internet connection among multiple computers.


A computer that provides services to other computers, or the software that runs on it. Application server, a server dedicated to running certain software applications, Database server, provides database services.
Session Initiation Protocol is a protocol developed by the IETE MMUSIC Working Group and proposed standard for initiating, modifying, and terminating an interactive user session that involves multimedia elements such as video, voice, instant messaging, online games and virtual reality.
Short Message Service is a service available on most digital mobile phones that permits the sending of short messages (also known as text messages or more colloquially SMSes, texts or even txts) between mobile phones, other handheld devices and even landline telephones. Other uses of text messaging can be for ordering ringtones, wallpapers and entering competitions.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for email transmission across the Internet.
The Synchronous Optical Network is a standard for communicating digital information using lasers or light emitting diodes (LEDs) over optical fibre as defined by GR-253-CORE from Telecordia. It was developed to replace the PDH system for transporting large amounts of telephone and data traffic and to allow for interoperability between equipment from different vendors.
Streaming video is a sequence of "moving images" that are sent in compressed form over the Internet and displayed by the viewer as they arrive. Streaming media is streaming video with sound. With streaming video or streaming media, a Web user does not have to wait to download a large file before seeing the video or hearing the sound. Instead, the media is sent in a continuous stream and is played as it arrives. The user needs a player, which is a special program that uncompresses and sends video data to the display and audio data to speakers.


Terminal Adapter
In ISDN terminology, a terminal adapter or TA is a device that connects a terminal (computer) to the ISDN network. The TA therefore fulfills a similar function to the one a modem has on the POTS network, and is therefore sometimes called an ISDN modem.
The Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN), formerly Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON) is a standardisation body of ETSI, specialized in fixed networks and Internet convergence.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange data or packets. The protocol guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of sender to receiver data. TCP also distinguishes data for multiple, concurrent applications (e.g. Web server and email server) running on the same host.


Universal Plug and Play
A n initiative to simplify the interconnection of PCs, appliances, networks and services by extending plug and play to include networking.


Virtual Network Operator. A reseller of communication services operating under their own brand that does not own any infrastructure and therefore uses the networks of other operators
Voice over Internet Protocol Voice over Internet Protocol (also called VoIP, IP Telephony, Internet telephony, and Digital Phone) is the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or any other IP-based network. The voice data flows over a general-purpose packet-switched network, instead of traditional dedicated, circuit-switched voice transmission lines. Protocols used to carry voice signals over the IP network are commonly referred to as Voice over IP or VoIP protocols.
A Virtual Private Network, is a private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, to communicate over a public network. VPN message traffic is carried on public networking infrastructure (e.g. the Internet) using standard (often insecure) protocols, or over a service provider's network providing VPN service guarded by well defined Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider.


Wide Area Network . A communication network that uses telephone lines, satellite dishes or radio waves to span a larger geographic area then can be covered by a local area network.


X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocal suite for WAN networks using the phone or ISDN system as the networking hardware.